Brief references in the text of the paper indicating the source used for a quote, paraphrase, or summary.
Direct readers' attention to corresponding entries on the References section.
Consist of the source authors' last names (or part of the source's title, when author names are unavailable), the year of publication, and a page number (when available), all enclosed in parentheses.
Every source quoted, summarized, or paraphrased in the body of your paper should be cited in the References section, and vice-versa.
In the body of your paper, you must include - either in the body of the sentence or parenthetically - the source authors' last names and the page number (if there is one) where the information may be found.
"For the most part, though, the oral microbiomes of people are rather healthy assemblages of cohabitating microbes" (DeSalle & Perkins, 2015, p. 104).
DeSalle, R., & Perkins, S. L. (2015). Welcome to the microbiome: Getting to know the trillions of bacteria and other microbes in, on, and around you.. Yale University Press.
Siegel, Schmalleger, and Worrall (2015) suggest that knowing how the courts work is important to students because of the power of the courts in our society (p. xi).
This text examines moral implications of court rulings as well as legal implications (Siegel et al., 2015, p. xi).
Siegel, L. J., Schmalleger, F., & Worrall, J.L. (2015). Courts and criminal justice in America (2nd ed.), Pearson.
For example, if I were writing about the history of the Supreme Court, I would introduce a block quote with contextualizing information. In this case, I might discuss how prominent political figures discussed Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes reverentially on Holmes's retirement. One scholar has written that
when time came to show the more mundane aspects of respect, the nation proved surprisingly stingy. Within a few months of Holmes’s resignation, a so-called Economy Act cut federal salaries and almost perversely targeted Holmes. One clause on resigned federal judges set a maximum pension of $10,000, which would cut Holmes’s income in half and would similarly threaten any other Supreme Court justice who resigned. (Glock, 2019, p. 47)
This text serves as a block quote, and the reader can see that there is no punctuation between the quote’s introduction and the quote itself. Note, too, that the quote’s end punctuation goes before the parenthetical citation.
Glock, J. (2019). Unpacking the Supreme Court: Judicial retirement, judicial independence, and the road to the 1937 court battle. Journal of American History, 106(1), 47–71. https://doi.org/10.1093/jahist/jaz167
(Evers-Vermeul & Tribushinina, 2017, p. 27)
Evers-Vermeul, J., & Tribushinina, E. (2017). Usage-based approaches to language acquisition and language teaching. De Gruyter, Inc.
(Sheikh et al., 2013, p. 23)
Sheikh, A., Platts-Mills, T., Worth, A., & Holgate, S. (2013). Landmark papers in allergy: Seminal papers in allergy with expert commentaries. Oxford University Press, Incorporated.
(Jakobsson et al., 2012, p. 29)
Jakobsson, M., Mayer, L., Coakley, B., Dowdeswell, J. A., Forbes, S., Fridman, B., Hodnesdal, H., Noormets, R., Pedersen, R., Rebesco, M., Schenke, H. W., Zarayskaya, Y., Accettella, D., Armstrong, A., Anderson, R. M., Bienhoff, P., Camerlenghi, A., Church, I., Edwards, M., ... Weatherall, P. (2012). The international bathymetric chart of the arctic ocean (IBCAO) version 3.0. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(12), n/a. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052219
(APA, 2020, p. 37)
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
(Strain, 2019, p. 89)
Strain, C. (2019). The Ballot and the Bullet: Rethinking the Violent/Nonviolent Dichotomy. In Jeffries H. (Ed.), Understanding and Teaching the Civil Rights Movement (pp. 83-94). University of Wisconsin Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctvvsqcd0.12
(Shreya & , 2015, p. 2259)
Shreya, K., Grande, D., & Trinh-Shevrin Chau. (2015). From rhetoric to reality - community health workers in post-reform U.S. health care. The New England Journal of Medicine, 372(24), 2277-2279.
(Ducharme et al., 2015, p. 269)
Ducharme, S., Albaugh, M. D., Nguyen, T., Hudziak, J. J., Mateos-Pérez, J., Labbe, A., Evans, A. C., & Karama, S. (2016). Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development -- the importance of quality control procedures. NeuroImage, 125, 267-279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.010
(McCulloch et al., 2009, p. 1109)
McCulloch, P., Altman, D. G., Campbell, W. B., Flum, D. R., Glasziou, P., Marshall, J. C., & Nicholl, J. (2009). Surgical innovation and evaluation 3: No surgical innovation without evaluation: The IDEAL recommendations. The Lancet, 374(9695), 1105-12. https://www.proquest.com/docview/199052178
(Heinz, 2015, 01:49)
Heinz, W., (2015, Nov. 1). Natalie (And the flea) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-hPuJhFR_s
Glass, E. [@erinroseglass]. (2019, Feb. 23). What if public libraries were open late every night and we could engage in public life there instead of having to choose between drinking at the bar and domestic isolation. [Tweet]. https://twitter.com/erinroseglass/status/1099429250979979265
All content on the title page should be centered.
Title: Begins upper half of first page, 3-4 lines below the page number, in bold type. Capitalize all words except articles, conjunctions, or prepositions of fewer than 4 letters.
Add one empty line after the title.
Institution: The school or other institution for which the paper was written
Class: The course number and name
This section starts fresh on a new page after the body of your paper.
Center and bold the word "References" at the top of the first page of this section.
Capitalize titles of all works as follows: